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Integrated full solution of water and fertilizer integration (drip irrigation)

1. What is the integration of water and fertilizer?
In narrow sense, it is through fertilizing the irrigation system that crops absorb water while absorbing nutrients. Fertilization usually takes place simultaneously with irrigation is achieved by injecting fertilizer solution into the irrigation and transportation pipeline under pressure.
2. The theoretical basis of the integration of water and fertilizer is?
Plants have two "mouths". Their roots are their big mouths, and their leaves are small mouths. A large number of nutrients are absorbed through the root system. Foliar fertilizer can only play a complementary role. How can we apply fertilizer to the soil to reach the plant's mouth? There are usually two processes. One is called the diffusion process. After the dissolution of fertilizer into the soil solution near the root surface of nutrient absorption, concentration of soil solution from the root surface is relatively high, resulting in diffusion, low concentration of nutrients to the root surface by mobile absorption. Another process is called mass flow. Under the condition of sunlight, stomata of plants open and transpire (this is a physiological phenomenon of plants), resulting in water loss. The roots continuously absorb water for the transpiration of leaves.
3. What are the commonly used measures for the integration of water and fertilizer?
The prerequisite for the integration of water and fertilizer is to dissolve the fertilizer first. Then use it in a variety of ways. Such as foliar spraying, spraying and pouring, dragging pipe spraying, sprinkling irrigation, micro sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation and trunk injection. The application of drip irrigation saves fertilizer.
4. What are the advantages of drip irrigation?

Saving a lot of labor and fertilizer is more economical than traditional fertilization. The fertilization rate is fast, and the fertilization can be completed within 1 days.
It is convenient and accurate to control the time and quantity of fertilization.
Increase yield and quality, and crop resistance to weather.
Increasing the realization of standardized cultivation;
Because of the coordination of water and fertilizer, the amount of water can be reduced.
Drip fertigation can reduce the spread of disease and water borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. Because drip irrigation is irrigated by a single plant. Water dripping into the soil is drier and the ground is relatively dry.
Drip fertigation only wetted the root layer, and there was no water and fertilizer supply between the rows, and the growth of weeds also decreased.
Drip irrigation can instilled pesticide into soil, which has a good effect on soil pests, nematodes and root diseases.
In winter, soil temperature is low, which can warm the water and drip it to the root through drip irrigation. It has strong applicability in greenhouse.

For more viscous soil, the air compressor is used to irrigate the soil to solve root problems.

Because drip irrigation is easy to control water and fertilizer, roots can be introduced into the bottom of the soil under the condition of deep soil.

Fertilization by drip irrigation can be fertilized according to the fertilizer requirement of crops. When the amount of absorption is high, use more fertilizer and absorb less time and less fertilizer. Many crops are closed when they are closed

Because of water and fertilizer supply, crop growth is fast and can be entered in the result stage or early harvest in advance.

5. Why can drip irrigation save 30% ~ 50% of fertilizer?
Using the integrated water and fertilizer drip irrigation system, a small amount of fertilizer can be realized, and it can be fertilized according to the rule of crop fertilizer. Secondly, the waste of fertilizer caused by volatilization and leaching can be reduced.
6. Drip irrigation can save 90% of fertilizer and irrigation labor.
Drip fertigation and watering do not need to go down, without ditching and covering the soil, and the speed is fast. The area of 1000 mu can be completed within one or two days. Drip irrigation is used to fertilize and fertilize facilities.
7, does the trickle of water drop a drop, can the water yield be small enough to meet the crop's water requirement?
Tolerable! In fact, emitter flow has many choices, and the common range is 1.0~10.0 liters / hour. The choice of emitter flow is mainly determined by soil texture. The heavier the texture is, the smaller the emitter discharge is. Although the emitter discharge per second is small, irrigation time is long. For an example of 2.3 liters / hourly drops, if two drops per fruit tree was arranged and the irrigation time was 2.5 hours, 11.5 liters of water for each tree and 23 liters of water for 5 hours of irrigation. Drip irrigation can increase water supply through irrigation time and increasing the number of emitters, so that the water demand of crops under hot climate can be achieved.
8, which crops are suitable for the installation of drip irrigation?
Drip irrigation can be installed in all crops. To measure whether a crop is suitable for drip irrigation is evaluated mainly from an economic perspective and crop planting practices. Rows of ridge culture crops, potted plants, mountain crops, economic forests, herbs and so on can be drip irrigation. At present, the promotion area is cotton, potato, corn, grape, orange, banana, flower, greenhouse vegetable, sugar beet and other crops.
9. What is the water quality requirement for drip irrigation?
Because the dripping head is a precision component, the particle size of the irrigation water is required. If the particle size of the drip irrigation is not greater than 120 mesh, the emitter can not be blocked. If the water filtration measures and equipment meet the requirements, well water, canal water, river water, pond water and so on can be used for drip irrigation. Therefore, the water filter equipment is the component of the drip irrigation system, and most of the drip irrigation systems can not work normally because the filter equipment does not meet the requirements or is removed from the cleaning filter.
10. How to choose a filter?

The key to drip irrigation is clogging. The selection of filters is a prerequisite for the success of drip irrigation. Commonly used filters are sand separator, dielectric filter, mesh filter and laminated filter. There are many specifications for filters, and what filters and combinations to choose are mainly determined by water quality.

11. What kind of fertilizer can be used?
As long as water soluble fertilizers are applied through drip irrigation systems. Water soluble compound fertilizer is selected, which has good solubility, high nutrient content and multiple nutrients. For example, chicken manure and pig manure must be treated by water retting, and the filtrate should be used.
12, drip irrigation can use chicken manure, pig manure and other fertilizers?
Drip irrigation system is a liquid pressure water delivery system, obviously can not be used directly. But we can use them to retting biogas slurry, after sedimentation, filtration and application. Chicken manure, pig manure and other retting after filtration use. The filtration system was first filtered with 20 mesh stainless steel mesh and filtered with 80 mesh stainless steel mesh and filtered with 120 mesh stack filter. It overcomes the disadvantages that chemical fertilizer may cause, and saves labor and saves fertilizer.
13. What are the common ways to fertilize through drip irrigation system?
According to the different arrangement of drip irrigation system, a variety of fertilization methods can be adopted. Commonly used gravity self pressure fertilization method, pumping fertilizer method, pump fertilizer method, bypass tank fertilization method, Venturi fertilization method, proportion fertilization method.
14. What are the problems to be paid attention to in drip irrigation?
One is the problem of excessive irrigation. The worry about drip irrigation is the problem of excessive irrigation. Many users always feel that the drip irrigation water is few, and the mind is not practical. One consequence of irrigation time is wastage of water. Another consequence is to drain nutrients that are not absorbed by the soil below the root layer and waste fertilizers. It is the leaching of nitrogen. Usually, water soluble compound fertilizers contain urea and nitrate nitrogen. These two nitrogen sources are washed away. Excessive irrigation often presents symptoms of nitrogen deficiency, yellowing leaves and plant growth
15. How do we pay attention to excessive irrigation in the process of drip fertigation?
Drip irrigation only irrigated the root system and fertilized the root system. The way is to use the small shovel to dig the root layer to see the degree of wetness, so as to determine whether there is excessive irrigation. Or a tension meter in the earth is used to monitor the irrigation degree.
16. In the rainy season, soil is not short of water. How to fertilize through drip irrigation system?
In the absence of water, fertilization should be carried out as usual. Usually after the rain is stopped or when the soil is slightly dry. The fertilizer should be accelerated at this time. General control is completed in about 30 minutes. After fertilization, do not wash the tube. After the weather is clear, wash the tube again. If conductivity can be used to monitor the conductivity of the soil solution, the fertilization time can be controlled and the fertilizer will not be leached.
17. How to control the concentration of fertilizer?
A lot of fertilizer itself is inorganic salt. When the concentration is too high, the blade or the root system will be damaged. The concentration should be controlled by spraying fertilizer or dropping fertilizer through the irrigation system. The accurate method is to determine the conductivity of the fertilizer solution or the liquid fertilizer at the outlet of the emitter. It is usually in the range of 1.0-3.0ms/cm. Or add 1-3 kg of water-soluble compound fertilizer to each side of the water. For drip irrigation, the concentration of soil can be slightly higher because of the buffer effect of soil.
18. Does the drip irrigation in the hilly orchard need to build a reservoir?
No, it isn't. In order to save expenses, orchards terrain height difference within 15 meters, installation of drip irrigation generally do not need to build reservoirs, as long as the choice of head and flow of water pump can be. For a height difference of 25 meters above ground, it is cheaper to build a reservoir in the orchard and use the gravity drip irrigation system.。
19. Why do we need pressure compensating emitter for drip irrigation in Mountain Orchard?
The drop head is divided into the ordinary drop head and the pressure to compensate the drop head. The flow rate of a common emitter is proportional to the pressure, usually only on flat ground. The pressure compensated emitter can maintain a uniform constant flow within the pressure range. The mountain orchard, the tea garden or the forest area often have different degrees of height difference. The common dripping will lead to the unevenness of the water, which usually shows the high water and the low water. Using pressure compensation emitter can solve this problem. Pressure relief emitters should be used in order to produce uniform water flow around the pipeline and topographic height difference is greater than 3 meters.
20. How many years can the drip irrigation system use?
Drip irrigation pipes have various specifications, and the wall thickness ranges from 0.2 mm to 1.2 mm. The service life of thick wall and thin wall drip irrigation pipes is the same. Many thin-walled drip irrigation belts are mainly short of mechanical breakage, resulting in water leakage. From the point of mechanical damage, the longer the thicker drip irrigation pipe is, the longer it will be. Different crops and cultivation methods are different in terms of service life. The products with large density, such as strawberry, are more economical and reasonable with the design life of 1 - 3 years, and the fruit trees with small planting density are more economical and reasonable with the design life of 8 - 10 years.
21. Why can the drip irrigation pipe be exposed to the ground?
Because the physical and chemical properties of polyethylene (PE) are easy to be photooxidation, thermal oxidation, and ozone decomposition, it is easy to degrade under ultraviolet radiation, so ordinary PE pipes are not suitable for use in the open field.
22. Why is the PE pipe not as thick as possible?
Whether raw materials selected from PE are raw materials also affect the service life of the products. Because of their differences in physical properties, it is difficult to estimate the service life of drip irrigation PE pipes from the naked eye.
23, why do drip irrigation projects have teams to design and install?
The design of drip irrigation system involves many aspects such as water, soil, climate, crop cultivation, plant nutrition and so on. Usually, users can't get so much knowledge themselves. The design and installation team has many years of design experience. It can take all factors into consideration, and the designed system has expansibility.
24, how does the price of drip fertigation system consist of?
The cost of drip fertigation system is mainly composed of three parts: design fee, equipment and material fee, installation fee and so on. The specific price depends on the factors such as terrain condition, height difference, planting density, soil condition, water source condition, traffic condition, type of fertilizing equipment, system automation degree, material model specification, system service life and so on. Therefore, there is no uniform price for drip irrigation system. According to the actual situation of the country, the price of drip irrigation system is changing at 400~1500 yuan per mu. No matter how the price is, its basic functions are the same, that is, uniform effluent and even fertilization.
25, take fruit trees as an example, do you need to install drip irrigation?
The cost of drip irrigation system is about 1000 yuan / mu, and the design life is 10 years. The annual cost is 100 yuan / mu. After the installation of drip irrigation, it can save the expenditure of fertilizer on one hand. According to the calculation of 30% fertilizer, the expenditure can be saved by 30 to 50 yuan per mu each year; on the other hand, the output and quality can be increased, and the income will be increased to increase the income by 10%, and the annual income can be increased by 120 to 800 yuan per mu, which does not take into account the value of labor saving and the guarantee of high yield.
26. How much electricity is required per year?
26 because the micro irrigation system requires less pressure, it can save energy to a large extent. Taking an area of 100 acres of citrus orchard drip irrigation system as an example, the electricity consumption is about 1200 degrees per year, the current electricity price is calculated, the cost is 732 yuan, and the energy input per mu is 7.32 yuan. Drip irrigation is a way of saving energy for irrigation and fertilization.

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